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Human Factors Research

The human factors research focus within the COIN group aims to 1) produce knowledge about how humans and systems perform in complex environments, and 2) to apply this knowledge to enhance the safety, performance, and usability of new and existing sociotechnical systems.

Currently, the human factors research is primarily focused at the domains of military command & control and healthcare, but also includes other domains such as nuclear power, traffic, and aviation. The research topics and interests of the human factors research group span a wide range from teamwork, C2, stress, and communication to patient safety, resilience, workload, simulation, and usability evaluation. Likewise, a wide array of methodologies and analytical strategies are employed to achieve the scientific objectives, from qualitative research approaches such as observations and interviews to quantitative questionnaires and task performance metrics, and field studies are used as well as controlled experiments and simulations.

Current and past projects

Some of the text is unfortunately at present only in Swedish.

Effektiva Räddningsinsatser på Framtidens Skadeplats

Hur ska r√§ddningsf√∂rm√•gan vid olyckor st√§rkas i framtiden? Hur ska resurserna organiseras p√• b√§sta s√§tt och vilka krav kommer att st√§llas p√• de akt√∂rer som genomf√∂r r√§ddningsinsatserna? Det √§r n√•gra av de fr√•gor som kommer att studeras inom en ny forskningssatsning som finansieras av MSB med 20 miljoner kr under fem √•r. Det √§r forskare vid Link√∂pings universitet som f√•r i uppdrag att bygga upp en ny forskningsmilj√∂ p√• omr√•det ”Effektiva r√§ddningsinsatser p√• framtidens skadeplats”. Forskningsmilj√∂n ”Effektiva r√§ddningsinsatser p√• framtidens skadeplats” genomlyser skadeplatsen fr√•n olika perspektiv och blandar relevanta discipliner och kunskapsomr√•den som ekonomi och organisation, informatik, datavetenskap, logistik, kognitionsvetenskap, katastrofmedicin, traumatologi, juridik, statsvetenskap och genusvetenskap. Forskarna arbetar tillsammans med r√§ddningstj√§nst, ambulanssjukv√•rd, relevanta myndigheter, frivilligorganisationer och ideella och skapar en testb√§dd d√§r olika tekniker, metoder och s√§tt att organisera r√§ddningsinsatser utv√§rderas. Lovande resultat kan sedan direkt nyttigg√∂ras, t ex i form av √∂vningar, kurser eller kommersiella produkter.


Projekt "Vilken f√∂rm√•ga finns att hantera en stor skadeh√§ndelse?”

En av samh√§llets grundl√§ggande funktioner √§r att ha beredskap att svara upp med kompetenta resurser d√• en olycka eller ett hastigt insjuknande sker. Effekterna av en stor skadeh√§ndelse drabbar inte bara de direkt inblandade utan √§ven anh√∂riga, personal och lokalsamh√§llet. Vid riktigt stora eller dramatiska h√§ndelser p√•verkas hela samh√§llet. Att dimensionera beredskapen att hantera st√∂rre skadeh√§ndelser √§r dock sv√•rt d√• det idag saknas verktyg f√∂r att m√§ta och utv√§rdera katastrofmedicinsk f√∂rm√•ga och beredskap. Katastrofmedicinskt centrum har i flera forskarprojekt tillsammans med Institutionen f√∂r Datavetenskap (IDA) utvecklat DigEmergo, ett digitalt simuleringssystem utvecklat genom kognitionsvetenskaplig forskning med nya digitala m√∂jligheter, s√• som dynamiskt inneh√•ll och automatiserade prestationsm√•tt. Systemet m√∂jligg√∂r andra s√§tt att √∂va, utv√§rdera √∂vningar, och framf√∂rallt till√•ter det mer avancerade och generella f√∂rm√•geanalyser. Projektet inneb√§r en ett√•rig f√∂rst√§rkning i forskningsproduktionen och valideringen av Digemergo i samband med Region √Ėsterg√∂tlands f√∂rm√•geanalys av den katastrofmedicinska beredskapen 2017. F√∂r att skapa m√∂jlighet till f√∂rb√§ttrad f√∂rm√•geanalys kr√§vs utveckling av tv√• komponenter: en dynamisk patientmodell, samt funktioner f√∂r stokastisk simulering.

Advanced Forest Fighting - AF3

AF3 intends to improve the efficiency of current fire-fighting operations and the protection of human lives, the environment and property by developing innovative technologies to ensure the integration between existing and new systems. Moreover, AF3 will contribute to increase the interoperability of fire-fighting means and to pave the way for industrialization of such solutions. To reach this objective, the AF3 project focuses on innovative active and passive countermeasures, early detection and monitoring, integrated crisis management and advanced public information channels. The project started on May 2014 and is carried out by a consortium of 20 members from 10 Countries.


DARWIN is an EU funded research project under the Horizon 2020 research programme. The project is focussed on improving responses to expected and unexpected crises affecting critical societal structures during natural disasters (e.g. flooding, earthquakes) and man-made disasters (e.g cyber-attacks). To achieve this, DARWIN will develop European resilience management guidelines aimed at critical infrastructure managers, crisis and emergency response managers, service providers, first responders and policy makers. Infrastructure operators will have up-to-date and effective guidelines at their disposal to facilitate faster, more effective and highly adaptive responses to crises. This will have a direct impact on the safety of European citizens in times of crisis and disaster into the future. The DARWIN resilience guidelines will also be of significant benefit for governments of EU member states.





Erik Prytz

Björn Johansson
Also with FOI (The Swedish Defence Research Institute)

Peter Berggren
Also with

Jens Alfredsson
Also with SAAB

Luis Gonzaga Trabasso
Also with



Johansson, B.J.E. & Hellgren, C. (accepted for publication). Navigation support for dismounted soldiers using minimal information as a supplement to a digital map. Int. J. of ISCRAM.

Ohlander, U., Linger, O., Hägg, V., Nilsson, L., Holmqvist, Å., Durefors, S,. Alfredson, J., Prytz, E. (2016). Performance and Workload Using Low-Cost Gaze-Control for Simulated Flight Tasks. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Chapter Annual Meeting, Prague, Czech Republic, October 26-28, 2016.

Prytz, E. (2016). A method framework for usability testing of medical devices. Medicinteknikdagarna, √Ėrebro, Sweden, October 5-6, 2016.

Prytz, E., Rybing, J., & Jonson, C.-O. (2016). Workload Differences Across Command Levels and Emergency Response Organizations During a Major Joint Training Exercise. Journal of Emergency Management, 14(4). DOI: 10.5055/jem.2016.0294.

Rybing, J, Prytz, E., Larsson, J, & Jonson, C.-O. (2016). Preliminary Validation Results of DigEmergo for Surge Capacity Management. The 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, May 22-25, 2016.

Rybing, J., Prytz, E., Bång, M., Nilsson, H., Hornwall, J., & Jonson, C.-O. (2016). Development and evaluation of DigEmergo. Simulation & Gaming, accepted for publication.

Scerbo, M., Prytz, E., Britt, R., Kennedy, R., & Stefanidis, D. (2016). Laparoscopic Skill and Mental Workload Measured over Retention Interval. 16th Annual International Meeting on Simulation in Health Care, San Diego, CA., January 16-20, 2016.


Britt, R. C., Scerbo, M. W., Montano, M., Kennedy, R. A., Prytz, E., & Stefanidis, D. (2015). Intracorporeal suturing: transfer from fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery to cadavers results in substantial increase in mental workload. Surgery, 158 (5). DOI: 10.1016/j.surg.2015.03.032

Lundberg, J., & Johansson, B.J.E.  (2015) Systemic Resilience Model. .Reliability Engineering and Safety Science. 141, 22-32.

Prytz, E., & Rybing, J. (2015). Evaluation of a Novel Method to Study Inter-Organizational Coordination in Medical Command and Control Centers. 19th World congress on disaster and emergency medicine, Cape Town, South Africa, April 21-24, 2015.

Prytz, E., & Scerbo, M. (2015). Changes in stress and subjective workload over time following a workload transition. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 16 (6). DOI: 10.1080/1463922X.2015.1084397

Prytz, E., Hodza-Beganovic, R., Carlsson, H., Nilsson, H., & Jonson, C.-O. (2015). Identifying the Educational and Technical Needs of the Emergency Dispatch Service in Kosovo using Hierarchical Task Analysis. 19th World congress on disaster and emergency medicine, Cape Town, South Africa, April 21-24, 2015.

Prytz, E., Rybing, J., Berggren, P., Johansson, B., Petterson, A., & Jonson, C.-O. (2015). An exploratory study of a low-level shared awareness measure using mission-critical locations during an emergency exercise. Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Los Angeles, CA, October 26-30, 2015.

Prytz, E., Rybing, J., Carlström, E., Khorram Manesh, A., & Jonson, C.-O. (2015). Exploring collaborative command and control work during a live major incident. International Journal of Emergency Services, 4 (2). DOI: 10.1108/IJES-04-2015-0016.

Rybing, J., Prytz, E., Hornwall, J., Jonson, C.-O., Nilsson, H., & B√•ng, M. (2015). Preliminary evaluation results of DigEmergo - a digital simulator prototype for disaster and emergency management training. 19th World congress on disaster and emergency medicine, Cape Town, South Africa, April 21-24, 2015.

Woltjer, R., Johansson, B.J.E., & Berggren, P. (2015) An overview of Agility and Resilience: From Crisis Management to Aviation. Proceedings of the 6th Symposioum ocn Resilience Engineering.Lissabon 22-25/6 2015.


Bång, M., Prytz, E., Rybing, J., & Timpka, T. (2014). Cognitive design of a digital desk for the emergency room setting. American Medical Informatics Association Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., November 15-19, 2014.

Berggren, P., Baroutsi, N., Johansson, B.J.E., Turcotte, I., & Tremblay, S. (2014) Assessing team focused behaviors in emergency response teams. Proceedings of ISCRAM 2014, State College, May.

Berggren, P., Johansson, B.J.E., Baroutsi, N., & Dahlb√§ck, N. (2014) The Shared Priorities Measure as a Way of Assessing Team Strategic Awareness ‚Äď A Bridge Between Self-Assessment and the Deep Blue Sea of Field Recordings. Proceedings of ECCE 2014, Wien, September.

Berggren, P., Johansson, B.J.E., Svensson, E., Baroutsi, N., & Dahlb√§ck, N. (2014) Statistical Modelling of Team Training in a Microworld Study. In Proceedings of the HFES annual meeting, Chicago, October.

Johansson, B.J.E. (2014). Agility in Command and Control ‚Äď Functional models of Cognition. In (Eds.)P. Berggren & S. N√§hlinder, Assessing command and control effectiveness ‚Äď dealing with a changing world. Ashgate, Oxon, UK.
Johansson, B.J.E., & Pearce, P. (2014). An Overview of Organizational Agility. In (Eds.) P. Berggren & S. N√§hlinder, Assessing command and control effectiveness ‚Äď dealing with a changing world.Ashgate, Oxon, UK.

Johansson, B.J.E., Hellgren, C., Oskarsson, P-A. & Svensson, J. (2013). Supporting situation awareness on the move - the role of technology for spatial orientation in the field. Proceedings ofISCRAM 2013, Baden-Baden, Germany.

Kristiansson, M., Wiik, R., & Prytz, E. (2014). Bodily orientations and actions as constituent parts of remembering objects and intentions before leaving home: the case of older adults. Sensoria, 10 (1), 21-27. DOI: 10.7790/sa.v10i1.385

Oskarsson, P-A., Johansson, B.J.E., Svensson, J. (2014) Target Designation and Indication with GPS Map in Night-Ops Conditions. Proceedings of ECCE 2014, Wien, September.

Oskarsson, P-A., Svensson, J., Johansson, B.J.E., & Hellgren, C. (2014) Indication of Direction With Digital Maps ‚Äď Effects of Display Size and Time Constraints. In Proceedings of the HFES annual meeting, Chicago, October.

Prytz, E., & Scerbo, M. (2014). The effects of a workload transition on stress over time. Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Chicago, IL, October 27-31, 2014.


Prytz, E. (2013). A Spatial Task to Measure Laparoscopic Mental Workload: Lessons Learned and Initial Results. The 2013 Annual Modeling, Simulation & Visualization (MS&V) Student Capstone Conference, Suffolk, VA, April 11, 2013.

Prytz, E., Montano, M., Kennedy, R., Anderson-Montoya, B., Scerbo, M., Parodi, A., & Armstrong, B. (2013). A Model for Evaluating Healthcare Simulation Systems. 2013 Symposium on Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care: Advancing the Cause, Baltimore, MD, March 11-13, 2013.

Prytz, E., Montano, M., Kennedy, R., Scerbo, M., Britt, R., Davis, S., & Stefanidis, D. (2013). Using A Spatial Task to Measure Laparoscopic Mental Workload: Initial Results. 13th Annual International Meeting on Simulation in Health Care, Orlando, FL., January 26-30, 2013.

Scerbo, M., Kennedy, R., Prytz, E., Byars, D., Goodmurphy, C., Knapp, B., Miller, G., Lattanzio, F., Shaves, S., Solhaug, M., Levitov, A., Abuhamad, A., & Toreno, F. (2013). Spatial abilities and ultrasonography: Do differences between male and female medical students matter? Second World Congress on Ultrasound in Medical Education, Columbia, SC, September 27-29, 2013.


Hellgren, C. & Johansson, B.J.E. (2012) Reducing workload by navigational support in dynamic situations. In Proceedings of ISCRAM 2012, Vancouver, Canada.

Kennedy, R., Anderson-Montoya, B., Scerbo, M., Prytz, E., Belfore, L., Abuhamad, A., Chauhan, S., Davis, S. (2012). The Influence of Visual Aids on Detecting Early and Late Decelerations in Maternal-Fetal Heart Rate Patterns. Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Boston, MA, October 22-26, 2012.

Prytz, E. (2012). Dual Task Interference in Laparoscopic Psychomotor Performance: A Proposed Simulator Study. The 2012 Annual Modeling, Simulation & Visualization (MS&V) Student Capstone Conference, Suffolk, VA, April 19, 2012.

Prytz, E. & Scerbo, M. (2012). Spatial Judgments in the Horizontal and Vertical Planes from Different Vantage Points. Perception, 41(1), 26-42.

Prytz, E., Montano, M., & Scerbo, M. (2012). Using Fitts' Law for a 3D Pointing Task on a 2D Display: Effects of Depth and Vantage Point. Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Boston, MA, October 22-26, 2012.


Artman, H., Brynielsson, J., Johansson, B.J.E. & Trnka, J. (2011). Dialogical Emergency Management and StrategicAwareness in Emergency Communication. In Proceedings of ISCRAM 2011,Lissabon, Portugal.

Berggren, P., Prytz, E., Johansson, B., & N√§hlinder, S. (2011). The Relationship Between Workload, Teamwork, Situation Awareness, and Performance in Teams: A Microworld Study. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 55th annual meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada.

Nilsson, S., Johansson, B.J.E., & J√∂nsson, A. (2011). Cross-organizational Collaboration Supported by Augmented Reality. IEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 17(10): 1380-1392.

Prytz, E., Scerbo, M., & Kennedy, R. (2011). Spatial Judgments from Different Vantage Points: A Different Perspective. Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Las Vegas, NV, September 19-23, 2011.

Trnka, J. & Johansson, B. (2011). Resilient Emergency Response: Supporting Flexibility and Improvisation in Collaborative Command and Control. In M.E. Jennex (Ed.). Crisis Response and Management and Emerging Information Systems: Critical Applications Hershey, PA: IGI Global. pp. 112-138.


Berggren, P. & Johansson, B. (2010). Developing an Instrument for Measuring Shared Understanding. In Proceedings of ISCRAM 2010, Seattle, US.

Granlund, R., Granlund, H., Dahlb√§ck, N. & Johansson, B. (2010). The Effect of a Geographical Information System on Communication in Professional Emergency Response Organizations. In Proceedings of ISCRAM 2010, Seattle, US.

Johansson, B., Trnka, J., Granlund, R., & G√∂tmar, A. (2010). The Effect of a Geographical Information System on Performance and Communication of a Command and Control Organization. Int. J. Human-Computer Interaction, 26(2 & 3): 228-246.

Nilsson, S., Johansson, B., & J√∂nsson, A. (2010). A Holistic Approach to Design and Evaluation of Mixed Reality Systems. In (Ed.) E Dubois, The Engineering of Mixed Reality Systems, Human-Computer Interaction Series. Springer-Verlag, London.

Prytz, E., Nilsson, S., & Jönsson, A. (2010). The Importance of Eye-Contact for Collaboration in AR Systems. Ninth IEEE Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, Seoul, Korea, October 13-16, 2010.

2009 and earlier

Aminoff, H., Johansson, B. & Trnka, J. (2007). Understanding Coordination in Emergency Response. Proc. of the 26th European Annual Conference on Human Decision-Making and Manual Control (EAM‚Äô07), Lyngby, DK.

Artman, H., Waern, Y., Garbis, C. & Johansson, B. (2000). Discourse about technology and use of technology in future crisis management systems. Proceedings to the 7th International Pragmatics Conference, Budapest, Hungary.

Gawinowski, G. A., Averty; P., Hollnagel, E., Johansson, B. & Wise J. A. (2006). ERASMUS: A novel human factors approach to air traffic management. Proc.s of the 27th European Association for Aviation Psychology Jubilee Conference.  Potsdam, Germany.

Granlund, R. & Johansson, B. (2004). Monitoring Distributed Collaboration in the C3Fire Microworld, in Schifflett, S. G., Elliot, L. R., Salas, E., & Coovert, M. D. (eds.) Scaled Worlds: Development, Validation, and Applications, Ashgate Publishing Limited, Aldershot.

Granlund, R., Johansson, B. & Persson, M. (2001). C3Fire: a Microworld for Collaboration Training in the ROLF environment. SIMS 2001 & 42nd Conference on Simulation and Modeling,Porsgrunn, Norway.

Granlund, R., Johansson, B., Persson, M., Artman, H. & Mattson, P. (2001). Exploration of methodological issues in Micro-world research -Experiences from research in team decision making.Proceedings of the International Workshop on Cognitive Research with Microworlds - Methodological and theoretical issues for industrial applications, Granada, Spain.

Granlund, R., Johansson, B., Trnka, J., & Granlund, H. (2009). Investigating the Impact of a Geographical Information System in a Municipality Crisis Management Organization. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making. London, UK, June 2009.

Johansson B, Artman H & Waern Y (2001) Technology in Crisis Management Systems - ideas and effects, Journal of research and problem solving in organizational communication, special issue Pragmatics in Crisis, 2(3): 247-258.

Johansson B, Granlund R & Waern Y (2000). The Communicative Aspects of Distributed Dynamic Decision Making in the ROLF-Environment, in Henrik Friman (ed.), Proceedings to the 5th International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making, Tammsvik, Sweden.

Johansson B, Persson M, Granlund R & Matsson P (2003) C3Fire in Command and Control Research, Cognition, Technology & Work, 5(3): 191-196.

Johansson, B. (2004). Human performance in dynamic systems - Effects of action regulation, Proceedings of the CSEPC 2004 International Conference on Cognitive Systems Engineering Approaches to Process Control, Sendai, Japan.

Johansson, B. & Granlund, R. (2001). Feedback in Shared Digital Maps. In M. Lind, (ed.), Proceedings of the EAM 2001, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Johansson, B. & Hollnagel, E. (2007). Pre-Requisites for Lage-Scale Coordination, Cogntion, Technology & Work, 9(1): 5-13.

Johansson, B. & Lundberg, J. (2009). Engineering Safe Aviation Systems ‚Äď Balancing Resilience and Stability. In D.J Garland, J.A Wise &V.D Hopkin (Eds.), Handbook of Aviation Human Factors. Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, Mahaw, New Jersey.

Johansson, B. & Persson, P-A. (2009). Reduced uncertainty through human communication in complex environments. Cognition, Technology & Work. 11: 205-214.

Johansson, B. & Rigas, G. (2004). Functional Failures, Time and Control, in Thissen W, Wieringa P, Pantic M & Ludema M (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man & Cybernetics, Omnipress, The Netherlands.

Johansson, B., & Nilsson, S. (2008). Augmented Reality as a tool to achieve common ground for network based operations. Proc. of the 13th Int. Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS), Bellevue, WA.

Johansson, B., Granlund, R. & Waern, Y. (2005). Research on Decision Making and New Technology - Methodological Issues, in B. Brehmer, R. Lipshitz, & H. Montgomery (eds.), How Professionals Make Expert Decisions, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahaw, New Jersey.

Johansson, B., Hollnagel, E. & Granlund, √Ö. (2002). Control of Unpredictable Systems, in  Johnsson, C. (ed.), Proceedings to the 21st European annual conference on Human Decision Making and Control. GIST Technical Report G2002-1, Department of Computing Science, University of Glasgow, Scottland.

Johansson, B., Trnka, J. & Granlund, R. (2007). The Effect of Geographical Information Systems on a Collaborative Command and Control task, in B. Van den Walle, P. Burghardt & C. Nieuwenhuis(Eds.), Proc. of the 4th Int. Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM), Delft, The Netherlands.

Kristensson, P. O., Arnell, O., Björk, A., Dahlbäck, N., Pennerup, J., Prytz, E., Wikman, J., & Åström, N. (2008). InfoTouch: An Explorative Multi-Touch Visualization Interface for Tagged Photo Collections. Proceedings NordiCHI 2008, Lund, Sweden, October 20-22, 2008, pp 491-494.

Leifler, O., Johansson, B., Persson, M. & Rigas, G. (2004). Development of Critiquing Systems in Networked Organizations. In Johnson & Palanque P (eds.), Human Error, Safety and Systems Development, Kluwer, USA.

Lundberg, J., & Johansson, B. (2007). Pragmatic Resilience. In R. Woltjer, B. Johansson & J. Lundberg (Eds.), Proc. of the Resilience Engineering Workshop, Vadstena, Sweden, pp. 37-42.

Nilsson, S. & Johansson, B. (2006). A Cognitive Systems Engineering Perspective on the Design of Mixed Reality Systems, Proc. of the 13th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics (ECCE) ‚Äď Trust and Control in Complex Socio-Technical Systems, Zurich, Switzerland.

Nilsson, S., & Johansson, B. (2007). A Systemic Approach to Usability in Mixed Reality Information Systems. Proc. of Australia and New Zealand Systems Conference. Auckland, AU.

Nilsson, S., & Johansson, B. (2007). Social acceptance of Augmented Reality in a hospital setting. Proc. of 7th Berlin Workshop on Human-Machine Systems. Berlin, DE.

Nilsson, S., & Johansson, B.J.E. (2008). Acceptance of Augmented Reality Instructions in a Real Work Setting Proc. of the Int. conference in Computer-Human Interaction (CHI). Florence, IT.

Nilsson, S., Johansson, B. & J√∂nsson, A. (2008). Design of Augmented Reality for Collaboration. Proc. of 2008 ACM SIGGRAPH Int. Conference on Virtual- Reality Continuum and its Applications in Industry (VRCAI 2008), Fusionopolis, SG.

Persson M & Johansson B (2001). Creativity or Diversity in Command and Control, in  Smith M.J., Salvendy G., Harris D. & Koubek R.J. (eds.), Usability, Evaluation and Interface Design - Cognitive Engineering, Intelligent agents and Virtual Reality (Proceedings to HCI 2001), Vol. 1, pp1508-1512., New Orleans, USA.

Renner, L. & Johansson, B. (2006). Driver Coordination in Complex Traffic Environments. Proc. of the 13th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics (ECCE) ‚Äď Trust and Control in Complex Socio-Technical Systems, Zurich, Switzerland.

Trnka, J. & Johansson, B. (2009). Collaborative Command and Control Practice: Adaptation, Self-Regulation and Supporting Behavior. Int. J. Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, 1(2): 47-67.

Trnka, J., Johansson, B. & Granlund, R. (2005). Investigating the Impact of Spatial Decision Support Systems in Modern Emergency Management Using Microworld Simulations, Proceedings of the 2nd SimSafe conference, Link√∂ping, Sweden.

Trnka, J., Johansson, B. & Granlund, R. (2006). Information Support in Collaborative Command and Control Work ‚Äď An Empirical Research Using a Role-Playing Exercise Approach, Proc. of the 11th Int. Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS), Cambridge, UK.

Waern Y & Johansson B (2000). Understanding Communication in a Dynamic Situation - Argumentation in Situation assessment and planning, Proceedings to COOP 2000, Sophia Antipolis, France.
Woltjer, R., Prytz, E., & Smith, K. (2009). Functional Modeling of Agile Command and Control. 14th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Washington D.C, June, 2009.

Woltjer, R., Trnka, J., Lundberg, J. & Johansson, B. (2006). Role-Playing Exercises to Strengthen the Resilience of Command and Control Systems,.In G. Grote, H. G√ľnter & A. Totter (Eds.), Proc. of the 13th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics (ECCE) ‚Äď Trust and Control in Complex Socio-Technical Systems, Zurich, Switzerland.



Page responsible: Tom Ziemke
Last updated: 2016-10-10