Abstract of Ph.d. thesis
Linköping Studies in Arts and Sciences
Representing Future Situations of Service: Prototyping in Service Design
This thesis describes prototyping in service design through the theoretical lens of situated cognition. The research questions are what a service prototype is, what the benefits of service prototyping are, and how prototypes aid in the process of designing services. Four papers are included. Paper one suggests that service prototyping should be considered from the perspectives of purpose, fidelity, audience, position in the process, technique, representation, validity and author. The second paper compares research about how humans use external representations to think, with reasons for using prototypes in service design and service design techniques. The third paper compares two versions of a service prototyping technique called service walkthrough; showing that walkthroughs with pauses provided both more comments in total and more detailed feedback. The fourth paper also contributes to our understanding of how prototypes aid in designing services, by connecting the surrogate situation with the future situation of service. The paper shows how the formative service evaluation technique (F-SET) uses the theory of planned behaviour to add knowledge to service prototype evaluations about the intention to use a service in the future. Taken together the research provides a deeper understanding of what prototypes are, and their roles in service prototyping. This understanding is further deepened by a discussion about service as a design material, suggesting that from a design perspective, a service consists of service concept, process and system. The service prototype acts as a surrogate for the future situation of service. The thesis describes what the benefits of using surrogates are, and shows how prototypes enhance the ability to gain knowledge about future situations. This leads to an understanding of prototyping as a way of thinking in design.
Stakeholder Engagement for Service Design: How service designers identify and communicate insights
Service design is a field emerging from the new-found interest in services as a design material by practitioners and academics of the human-centred design tradition. As such, the field can build on the knowledge from previous work in design as well as in service research. Introducing a new design material may however also introduce new challenges to practice. The research presented in this thesis investigates how the design research phase of the human-centred design process is affected by making services a design material.
How users, staff and other stakeholders are involved in service design projects was studied in four studies. Two studies focused on getting a holistic view of how service designers engage stakeholders in their design research. The methods used for these two studies were interviews in one case and participatory observation in the other. The two remaining studies focused on specific aspects of the stakeholder engagement process. One compared how designers and anthropologists approach ethnography, whereas the second investigated the communicative qualities of service design visualisations.
It is argued that service design is a stakeholder-centred design discipline. The tools used in service design are to a large extent borrowed from other qualitative research traditions, but design-specific tools do exist. The information gathered with the tools for stakeholder engagement is then transformed into insights through analysis and synthesis. These insights are visualised to provide easily accessible representations of service situations.
Social and Emotional Characteristics of Speech-based In-Vehicle Information Systems: Impact on Attitude and Driving Behaviour
Modern vehicles use advanced information systems in vehicles to provide and control a wide variety of functions and features. Even modest vehicles today are equipped with systems that control diverse functions from air-conditioning to high quality audio/video systems.
Since driving requires the use of eyes and hands, voice interaction has become more widely used by in-vehicle systems. Due to the technical complexity involved in voice recognition, focus has been on issues of speech ecognition. Speech generation is comparatively simple, but what effect does the choice of voice have on the driver? We know from human-human interaction that social cues of the voice itself influence attitude and interpretation of information. Introducing speech based communication with the car changes the relationship between driver and vehicle. So, for in-vehicle information systems, does the spoken voice matter?
The work presented in this thesis studies the effects of the voice used by invehicle systems. A series of studies were used to answer the following questions: Do the characteristics of voices used by an in-vehicle system affect driver’s attitude? Do the characteristics of voice used by an in-vehicle system affect driver’s performance? Are social reactions to voice communication the same in the car environment as in the office environment?
Results show that voices do matter! Voices trigger social and emotional effects that impact both attitude and driving performance. Moreover, there is not one effective voice that works for all drivers. Therefore an in-vehicle system that knows its driver and possibly adapts to its driver can be the most effective. Finally, an interesting observation from these studies is that social reactions to voice communication in the car are different than in the office, Similarity attraction, an otherwise solid finding in social science, did not hold all studies. It is hypothesized that this difference can be related to the different kinds of task demands when driving a car or working in an office environment.
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Last updated: 2014-04-17