Tree-Adjoining Grammars Are Not Closed Under Strong Lexicalization

Marco Kuhlmann and Giorgio Satta. Tree-Adjoining Grammars Are Not Closed Under Strong Lexicalization. Computational Linguistics, 38(3):617–629, 2012.


A lexicalized tree-adjoining grammar is a tree-adjoining grammar where each elementary tree contains some overt lexical item. Such grammars are being used to give lexical accounts of syntactic phenomena, where an elementary tree defines the domain of locality of the syntactic and semantic dependencies of its lexical items. It has been claimed in the literature that for every tree-adjoining grammar, one can construct a strongly equivalent lexicalized version. We show that such a procedure does not exist: Tree-adjoining grammars are not closed under strong lexicalization.