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729A71 Behaviour in Complex Systems



This course does not have a specific textbook to cover the entire course. Rather, the required readings are based on the chosen seminar topics. Please note that not all of the following articles will be included during the course. Only the chosen seminar topics (for more information, see Seminars) will be covered.

The following articles/chapters are provided literature for the different seminar topics:


Resilience theory

  • Woods, D. D. (2012). Chapter 2 Essential Characteristics of Resilience. In E. Hollnagel, D. Woods, & N. Leveson (Eds.) Resilience Engineering: Concepts and Precepts, Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing, p. 21-36. (Link)
  • Sheridan, T. B. (2008). Risk, Human Error, and System Resilience: Fundamental Ideas. Human Factors, 50(3), 418–426. doi:10.1518/001872008X250773.R (Link)
  • Righi, A. W., Saurin, T. A., & Wachs, P. (2015). A systematic literature review of resilience engineering: Research areas and a research agenda proposal. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 141, 142–152. doi:10.1016/j.ress.2015.03.007 (Link)

Human error theory

  • Rasmussen, J. (1990). Human error and the problem of causality in analysis of accidents. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 327(1241), 449–460 (Link)
  • Hollnagel, E., & Amalberti, R. (2001). The emperor's new clothes: Or whatever happened to "human error". In Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Human Error, Safety and Systems Development, 1–18. (Link)
  • Dekker, S. W. A. (2002). The re-invention of human error Lund University School of Aviation. Technical Report 2002-01, 1-16.(Link)
  • Sharit, J. (2006). Human Error. In G. Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors & ergonomics (3rd ed.). Hobeken, NJ: Wiley, 708-760. (Link) [Read pages 708-722]

Team performance theory

  • Salas, E., Cooke, N. J., & Rosen, M. A. (2008). On Teams, Teamwork, and Team Performance: Discoveries and Developments. Human Factors, 50(3), 540–547. doi:10.1518/001872008X288457 (Link)
  • Salas, E., Sims, D. E., & Burke, C. S. (2005). Is there a "Big Five" in Teamwork? Small Group Research, 36(5), 555–599. doi:10.1177/1046496405277134 (Link)
  • Fiore, S. M., Rosen, M. A., Smith-Jentsch, K. A., Salas, E., Letsky, M., & Warner, N. (2010). Toward an Understanding of Macrocognition in Teams: Predicting Processes in Complex Collaborative Contexts. Human Factors, 52(2), 203–224. doi:10.1177/0018720810369807 (Link)

Situation awareness theory

  • Endsley, M. R. (1995). Toward a Theory of Situation Awareness in Dynamic Systems. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 37(1), 32–64. doi:10.1518/001872095779049543 (Link)
  • Smith, K., & Hancock, P. A. (1995). Situation Awareness Is Adaptive, Externally Directed Consciousness. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 37(1), 137–148. doi:10.1518/001872095779049444 (Link)
  • Dekker, S., & Hollnagel, E. (2004). Human factors and folk models. Cognition, Technology, and Work, 6, 79–86. (Link)
  • Sheridan, T. B., & Wickens, C. D. (2008). Situation Awareness, Mental Workload, and Trust in Automation: Viable, Empirically Supported Cognitive Engineering Constructs. Human Factors, 2(2), 140–160. doi:10.1518/155534308X284417. (Link)


  • Woods, D. (1996). Decomposing automation: Apparent simplicity, real complexity. In Automation and human performance (pp. 1–25). doi:citeulike-article-id:9449659 (Link)
  • Parasuraman, R., & Wickens, C. D. (2008). Humans: Still vital after all these years of automation. Human Factors, 50(3), 511–520. doi:10.1518/001872008X312198 (Link)
  • Dekker, S., & Woods, D. D. (2002). MABA-MABA or Abracadabra? Progress on human-automation coordination. Cognition, Technology & Work, 4(4), 240–244. (Link)
  • Parasuraman, R., Sheridan, T., & Wickens, C. D. (2000). A Model for Types and Levels of Human Interaction with Automation. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 30(3), 15–26. (Link)


  • Hancock, P. A., & Warm, J. S. (1989). A Dynamic Model of Stress and Sustained Attention. Human Factors, 31(5), 519–537. (Link)
  • Matthews, G. (2001). Levels of Transaction: A Cognitive Science Framework for Operator Stress. In P. A. Hancock & P. A. Desmond (Eds.), Stress, workload, and fatigue (pp. 5–33). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. (Link)
  • Teigen, K. (1994). Yerkes-Dodson: A Law for All Seasons. Theory and Psychology, 4, 525–547. (Link)

Expertise and training

  • Cannon-bowers, J. A., Salas, E., Tannenbaum, S. I., & Mathieu, J. E. (1995). Toward Theoretically Based Principles of Training Effectiveness: A Model and Initial Empirical Investigation. Military Psychology, 7(3), 141–164. (Link)
  • Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. T., & Tesch-Romer, C. (1993). The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance. Psychological Review, 100(3), 363–406. (Link)
  • Ericsson, K. A. (2004). Deliberate Practice and the Acquisition and Maintenance of Expert Performance in Medicine and Related Domains. Academic Medicine, 79(10), 70–81. (Link)


Resilience methods

  • Lundberg, J., & Johansson, B. J. (2015). Systemic resilience model. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 141, 22–32. doi:10.1016/j.ress.2015.03.013 (Link)
  • Hollnagel, E. (2015). RAG – Resilience Analysis Grid, 1–15. (Link)
  • Furniss, D., Back, J., Blandford, A., Hildebrandt, M., & Broberg, H. (2011). A resilience markers framework for small teams. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 96(1), 2–10. (Link)

Human error analysis methods

  • Kirwan, B. (1998). Human error identification techniques for risk assessment of high risk systems — Part 1: review and evaluation of techniques. Applied Ergonomics, 29(3), 157–177. (Link)
  • Lyons, M., Adams, S., Woloshynowych, M., & Vincent, C. (2004). Human reliability analysis in healthcare: A review of techniques. International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine, 16, 223–237. (Link)
  • Stanton, N. A., Salmon, P. M., Walker, G. H., Baber, C., & Jenkins, D. (2005). Human Factors Methods: A practical guide for engineering and design (2nd Ed.). Burlington, VT: Ashgate. (Link) [Read the introduction to Chapter 6 (139-143), and the sections about SHERPA (143-153), HET (153-158), TAFEI (165-173), HAZOP (174-180), and CREAM (208-212).]

Team analysis methods

  • Berggren, P. (2016). Assessing shared strategic understanding. Linköping University. (Link) [Chapter 1, 2, and 12]
  • Rosen, M. A., Salas, E., Wilson, K. A., King, H. B., Salisbury, M., Augenstein, J. S., ... Birnbach, D. J. (2008). Measuring Team Performance in Simulation-Based Training: Adopting Best Practices for Healthcare. Simulation in Healthcare, 3(1), 33–41. doi:10.1097/SIH.0b012e3181626276 (Link)
  • Stanton, N. A., Salmon, P. M., Walker, G. H., Baber, C., & Jenkins, D. (2005). Human Factors Methods: A practical guide for engineering and design (2nd Ed.). Burlington, VT: Ashgate. (Link) [Read the introduction to Chapter 9 (365-367), and the sections about BOS (367-374), HTA(T) (394-400), SNA (406-412), and Distributed Assessment of Team Mutual Awareness (412-415).]

Situation awareness methods

  • Endsley, M. R. (1995). Measurement of Situation Awareness in Dynamic Systems. Human Factors, 37(1), 65–84. doi:10.1518/001872095779049499 (Link)
  • Salmon, P. M., Stanton, N. A., Walker, G. H., Jenkins, D., Ladva, D., Rafferty, L., & Young, M. (2009). Measuring Situation Awareness in complex systems: Comparison of measures study. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 39(3), 490–500. doi:10.1016/j.ergon.2008.10.010 (Link)
  • Salmon, P., Stanton, N. A., Walker, G., & Green, D. (2006). Situation Awareness Measurement: A review of applicability for C4i environments. Applied Ergonomics, 37(2), 225–238. (Link)
  • Stanton, N. A., Salmon, P. M., Walker, G. H., Baber, C., & Jenkins, D. (2005). Human Factors Methods: A practical guide for engineering and design (2nd Ed.). Burlington, VT: Ashgate. (Link) [Read the introduction to Chapter 7 (213-222), and SA Requirements Analysis (222-225), SAGAT (225-233), SART (233-238) and CARS (280-284).]

Task analysis

  • Adams, A. E., Rogers, W. A. & Fisk, A. D. (2012). Choosing the right task analysis tool, Ergonomics in Design, 20(1), 4–10. (Link)
  • Kirschenbaum, S. S., Trafton, J. G., & Pratt, E. (2007). Comparative Cognitive Task Analysis. In R. Hoffman (Ed.), Expertise out of context (pp. 327–336). (Link)
  • Stanton, N. A. (2006). Hierarchical task analysis: Developments, applications, and extensions. Applied Ergonomics, 37(1), 55–79. (Link)
  • Stanton, N. A., Salmon, P. M., Walker, G. H., Baber, C., & Jenkins, D. (2005). Human Factors Methods: A practical guide for engineering and design (2nd Ed.). Burlington, VT: Ashgate. (Link) [Read the introduction to Chapter 3 (45-46 and 47-48), HTA (46-54), GOMS (54-57) and TTA (72-76).]

Ethnography in complex systems

  • Hughes, J., Rodden, T., & Andersen, H. (1994). Moving out from the control room: ethnography in system design. In Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work (pp. 429–439). (Link)
  • Mhlaba, J. M., Christianson, L. W., Davidson, S. J., Graves, S. N., Still, B. R., Silas, M. R., ... Langerman, A. J. (2016). Field Research in the Operating Room. Ergonomics in Design: The Quarterly of Human Factors Applications, 1–10. doi:10.1177/1064804616642916 (Link)
  • Walker, G. H., Stanton, N. A., Baber, C., Wells, L., Gibson, H., Salmon, P., & Jenkins, D. (2010). From ethnography to the EAST method: a tractable approach for representing distributed cognition in Air Traffic Control. Ergonomics, 53(2), 184–197. doi:10.1080/00140130903171672 (Link)
  • Macaulay, C., Benyon, D., & Crerar, A. (2000). Ethnography, theory and systems design: from intuition to insight. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 53(1), 35–60. doi:10.1006/ijhc.2000.0376 (Link)


  • Houghton, R. J., Baber, C., McMaster, R., Stanton, N. a, Salmon, P., Stewart, R., & Walker, G. (2007). Command and control in emergency services operations: a social network analysis. Ergonomics, 49(12-13), 1204–1225. doi:10.1080/00140130600619528 (Link)
  • Lindgren, I., Hirsch, R., & Berggren, P. (2007). It takes three points to define a common ground: breathing apparatus fire-fighters communication during rescue operations. Journal of Pragmatics, 39, 1482–1502. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2006.11.008 (Link)
  • Keebler, J. R., Dietz, A. S., Baker, A., & Hopkins, J. (2015). Effects of Communication Lag in Long Duration Space Flight Missions: Potential Mitigation Strategies Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. In 59th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (pp. 6–10). (Link)
  • Awad, S. S., Fagan, S. P., Bellows, C., Albo, D., Green-Rashad, B., De la Garza, M., & Berger, D. H. (2005). Bridging the communication gap in the operating room with medical team training. American Journal of Surgery, 190(5), 770–4. doi:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2005.07.018 (Link)
  • Woods, Z., Hilligoss, B., Duchon, a., Beecroft, N., & Patterson, E. S. (2014). Detecting Differences in Communication During Two Types of Patient Handovers: A Linguistic Construct Categorization Approach. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting (Vol. 58, pp. 1262–1265). doi:10.1177/1541931214581263 (Link)

Page responsible: Erik Prytz
Last updated: 2017-10-24