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TDDD07 Real Time Systems

Lectures and Lessons

Please note that lectures handouts are copies from last year until one day before the lecture, when they will be refreshed.

Lecture topics

Reading guidelines.

Lecture Topic Pdf     Note Reading material
1: Introduction to the course, Scheduling I pdf Ch. 1 and Ch. 11, Burns and Wellings
2: Scheduling II pdf - "" -
3: Scheduling III, multiple resources pdf   - "" -
4: Distributed scheduling, Distributed systems: time, clocks pdf Ramamritham et al. (1989), Ch 9.1 and 9.2 Burns&Wellings or Ch 3.1 and 3.4 (to end of 3.4.2) in Kopetz (1997), and Attiya et al. (2004) Ch 6 (page 141-147 in the ebrary search slot)
5: Distributed systems: Real-time communication pdf CAN: Davis et al. (2007), with a focus on section 3, TTP: Kopetz (2003) with focus on TTP/C, or Kopetz (1997) page 171-183
6: Distributed systems: Soft real-time, QoS pdf El-Gendy et al. (2003)
7: Dependability, fault tolerance, agreement pdf   Avizienis et al. (2004), Ch. 2, Ch. 13.1 Burns&Wellings
8: Real-time applications: Industrial perspective, guest lecture from
Ericsson Radio Systems
and Scania

pdf1 pdf2
9: Design of real-time systems pdf   Huang et al. (2003), Ch. 2, Ch. 15.1-15.4, 15.7 Burns&Wellings
10: Real-time operating systems & course summary pdf   Baskiyar&Meghanathan (2005), Burns&Wellings (section 1 to 2.4)

The lecture notes can be used as an indication of content that is worth putting more focus on during the reading. Also see the reading guidelines below.


The first lesson provides an introduction to the lab environment.

The lesson 2 to 4 will be devoted on questions and answers to the proposed set of theory exercises. You can attempt the exercises at your own convenience, and your solutions can be commented and questions answered during these lessons according to the schedule in the following table. During session 3 and 4 the topics of the previous sessions can also be discussed.

Answers to selected exercises will be posted (under "File") after you have had a chance of attempting the questions yourselves and discussed them in the lessons.

Lesson Topic File Exercises covered
1 Lab introduction Slides
2 Practice session 1 Solutions Scheduling and resouce sharing
3 Practice session 2 Solutions Distributed systems, Real-time communication
4 Practice session 3 Solutions QoS, Design, Dependability

Reading guidelines:

CPU Scheduling

Selected chapters from the book by Burns and Wellings or the Print-on-demand book by Carlson et al. cover the material.

Distributed scheduling:

The Ramamritham (1989) paper presents the problem and solutions. You need to understand the pros and cons of the three mechanisms mentioned but need not penetrate all the simulation results.

Real-time communication:

To understand the material on CAN buses you can either use the Carlson et al. Print-on-demand book, or use the article by Davis et al. above. For the Davis (2007) "CAN revisited paper" you are not expected to understand all the content in the paper. But you should aim to follow the CAN example that is covered in the lectures. For the TTP bus, book chapter by Kopetz (1997) and article (2003) should be used to understand how the timely message transfer is enforced in the system/bus architecture, and which faults are detected and treated (also part of the dependability goals of the course).

Distributed systems and events

Chapter 6 in Attiya et al. has more detailed theory than we cover in the course. Your goal should be to use the book as a supporting litterature in order to follow the examples in the lecture slides, and understand what is the purpose of the happed-before relation, logical and vector clocks, and their relationships to each other.

Overload management and QoS:

For the El-Gendy (2003) QoS paper, you can use the lecture slides as a guidance towards which parts of the paper that is worth focusing on.

Dependable systems:

The Avizienis et al. (2004) dependability paper is a good orientation on fault taxonomies and is very useful when embarking on any dependability analysis. You are not expected to remember the large taxonomy tables but understand the concepts and be able to use them.

Design of real-time systems:

The Huang et al. (2003) paper describes the difficulties of modelling the design of real-time systems. You should aim to understand the issues in sections 1-3. The lecture focuses on two of the possible design languages (UML type and synchronous style). Section 4 describes one research prototype among many.

Real-time operating systems:

The Baskiyar (2005) RTOS paper covers the main requirements of a real-time OS and describes some real RTOS examples.

Page responsible: Simin Nadjm-Tehrani
Last updated: 2013-12-13