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Resources and research papers

Obligatory readings (introductions, overviews and classics)


D.J. Arnold. Why translation is difficult for computers. In Harold Somers, editor, Computers and Translation: A translator's guide, pages 119-142. John Benjamins, Amsterdam, 2003. (See author's home page for a draft version)

Peter F. Brown, John Cocke, Stephen A. Della Pietra, Vincent J. Della Pietra, Fredrick Jelinek, John D. Lafferty, Robert L. Mercer, and Paul S. Roosin (1990). A Statistical Approach to Machine Translation. Computational Linguistics16(2), 1990: 79-85.

Federico Gaspari and John Hutchins (2007). Online and Free! Ten Years of Online Machine Translation: Origins, Developments, Current Use and Future Prospects.

Martin Kay (1998) The Proper Place of Men and Machine in Language Translation. Machine translation 12 (1-2), pp. 3-23.

M. Nagao (1984) A framework of a mechanical translation between Japanese and English by analogy principle. A. Elithorn & R. Banerji (eds.) Artificial and Human Intelligence, Amsterdam: North-Holland. pp. 173-180. Reprinted in Nirenburg et al. 2003: 351-354.

Bernard Vauquois (1976). Automatic translation. A Survey of Different Approaches. Proceedings of COLING-76, Ottawa 1976 and reprinted in Nirenburg, Somers and Wilks, Readings in Machine Translation, The MIT Press, 2003: 333-338.

Weaver, Warren (1949). Translation. Reprinted in Nirenburg, Somers and Wilks, Readings in Machine Translation, The MIT Press, 2003: 13-17.

Wu, Dekai (2005). MT model space: statistical versus compositional versus example-based machine translation. Machine Translation 19: 213-227.


Recommended readings

Under this heading I will place some important papers for different MT sub-topics.

(May still be extended)

Example-Based MT

Somers. H. (1999) Example-based machine translation. Machine translation 14(2). pp. 113-157.

Nano Gough and Andy Way (2004). Robust Large-Scale EBMT with Marker-Based Segmentation. Proceedings of TMI-04, Baltimore, Usa, 95-104.

Andy Way and Nano Gough (2005). Comparing example-based and statistical machine translation. Natural language Engineering 11(3), September 2005: 295-309.

Yves Lepage and Etienne Denoual (2005). Purest ever example-based machine translation: Detailed presentation and assessment. Machine Translation 19: 251-282.

Rule-Based MT

Eckhard Bick (2007). Dan2eng: Wide-Coverage Danish-English Machine Translation. MT Summit XI, Copenhagen, Denmark.

R. M. Kaplan, K. Netter, J. Wedekind, A. Zaenen and Translation by structural correspondences. Proceedings of the Fourth Conference of the European Chapter of the ACL, Manchester, 1989. Reprinted in Nirenburg, Somers and Wilks, Readings in Machine Translation, The MIT Press, 2003: 263-271.

J. Landsbergen (1989). The Rosetta project. Proceedings of MT Summit II, München, 1989: 82-87.

(Pure) Statistical MT

P. F. Brown, S. A. Della Pietra, V. J. Della Pietra & R. L. Mercer 1993: The mathematics of statistical machine translation: Parameter estimation. Computational Linguistics, 19(2): 263-311

Philipp Koehn, Hieu Hoang, Alexandra Birch, Chris Callison-Burch, Marcello Federico, Nicola Bertoldi, Brooke Cowan, Wade Shen, Christine Moran, Richard Zens, Chris Dyer, Ondrej Bojar, Alexandra Constantin, Evan Herbst, (2007). Moses: Open Source Toolkit for Statistical Machine Translation,, ACL 2007, demonstration session

P. Koehn, F.J. Och, and D. Marcu (2003). Statistical phrase based translation. In Proceedings of the Joint Conference on Human Language Technologies and the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the Association of Computational Linguistics (HLT/NAACL).

Moses tutorials and use: http://www.statmt.org/moses/

Syntax-Based Statistical MT

David Chiang. A Hierarchical Phrase-Based Model for Statistical Machine Translation. (ACL'05). http://www.isi.edu/~chiang/papers/chiang-acl05.pdf

David Chiang. Hierarchical phrase-based translation. Computational Linguistics 33(2): 201-228. (An extended version of the 2005 paper).

Hybrid approaches

Groves. D. and A. Way. 2005. Hybrid Example-Based SMT: the Best of Both Worlds?. In Proceedings of ACL 2005 Workshop on Building and Using Parallel Texts: Data-Driven Machine Translation and Beyond, Ann Arbor, MI., pp.183--190.

Groves, D. and A. Way. 2006. Hybridity in MT: Experiments on the Europarl Corpus. In Proceedings of the 11th Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation, Oslo, Norway.

Stephan Oepen, Erik Velldal, Jan Tore Lonning, Paul Meurer, Victoria Rosén, and Dan Flickinger. 2007, Towards Hybrid Quality-Oriented Machine Translation - On Linguistics and Probabilities in MT. TMI'07 http://share.emmtee.net/pub/bscw.cgi/d23044/tmi07.pdf

Yu Chen et al. 2007 Multi-Engine Machine Translation with an Open-Source Decoder for Statistical Machine Translation. WMT'07. http://www.mt-archive.info/ACL-SMT-2007-Chen.pdf


C, Callison-Burch, C. Fordyce, P. Koehn, C. Monz and J. Schroeder: Further Meta-Evaluation of Machine Translation. In Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation, June 19, 2008. Columbus, Ohio, 2008: 70-106.

K. Papineni, S. Roukos, T. Ward, and W-J. Zhu (2001): BLEU: A Method for automatic evaluation of machine translation. IBM RC22176 (W0109-022) IBM Research Division. T. J. Watson Research Center.

Lavie, A., A. Agarwal (2007): METEOR: An Automatic Metric for MT Evaluation with High Levels of Correlation with Human Judgments, Proceedings of Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation at the 45th Annual Meeting of the Association of Computational Linguistics (ACL-2007), Prague, June 2007.

Banerjee, S. and A. Lavie (2005): METEOR: An Automatic Metric for MT Evaluation with Improved Correlation with Human Judgments, Proceedings of Workshop on Intrinsic and Extrinsic Evaluation Measures for MT and/or Summarization at the 43th Annual Meeting of the Association of Computational Linguistics (ACL-2005), Ann Arbor, Michigan, June 2005.

Chris Callison-Burch, Miles Osborne and Philipp Koehn (2006). Re-evaluating the Role of Bleu in Machine Translation Research, EACL 2006,

Parallel corpora and treebanks

Document-based methods

Francis Bond, 2002. Toward a Science of Machine Translation. In Proceedings of the MT Roadmap Workshop at TMI-2002, Keihanna, Japan.

Page responsible: Lars Ahrenberg
Last updated: 2008-09-15