Energy Optimization of Multiprocessor Systems on Chip by Voltage Selection
IEEE Trans. on Very Large Scale Integration Systems (VLSI), Volume 15, Issue 3, March 2007, pp. 262-275.
Dynamic voltage selection and adaptive body biasing have been shown to reduce dynamic and leakage power consumption effectively. In this paper, we optimally solve the combined supply voltage and body bias selection problem for multi-processor systems with imposed time constraints, explicitly taking into account the transition overheads implied by changing voltage levels. Both energy and time overheads are considered. The voltage selection technique achieves energy efficiency by simultaneously scaling the supply and body bias voltages in the case of processors and buses with repeaters, while energy efficiency on fat wires is achieved through dynamic voltage swing scaling. We investigate the continuous voltage selection as well as its discrete counterpart, and we prove strong NP-hardness in the discrete case. Furthermore, the continuous voltage selection problem is solved using nonlinear programming with polynomial time complexity, while for the discrete problem we use mixed integer linear programming and a polynomial time heuristic. We propose an approach that combines voltage selection and processor shutdown in order to optimize the total energy.
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[AEPS07] Alexandru Andrei, Petru Eles, Zebo Peng, Marcus Schmitz, Bashir Al-Hashimi, "Energy Optimization of Multiprocessor Systems on Chip by Voltage Selection", IEEE Trans. on Very Large Scale Integration Systems (VLSI), Volume 15, Issue 3, March 2007, pp. 262-275.